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Pacta Sunt Servanda


Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for "agreements must be kept"[1]), is a brocard, a basic principle of civil law and of international law.

In its most common sense, the principle refers to private contracts, stressing that contained pacts and clauses are law between the parties, and implies that non-fulfilment of respective obligations is a breach of the pact. The general principle of correct behaviour in commercial praxis — and implies the bona fide — is a requirement for the efficacy of the whole system, so the eventual disorder is sometimes punished by the law of some systems even without any direct damages incurred by any of the parties.

With reference to international agreements, "every treaty in force is binding upon the parties to it and must be performed by them in good faith."[2] Pacta sunt servanda is based on good faith. This entitles states to require that obligations be respected and to rely upon the obligations being respected. This good faith basis of treaties implies that a party to the treaty cannot invoke provisions of its municipal (domestic) law as justification for a failure to perform.

The only limit to pacta sunt servanda are the peremptory norms of general international law, called jus cogens (compelling law). The legal principle clausula rebus sic stantibus, part of customary international law, also allows for treaty obligations to be unfulfilled due to a compelling change in circumstances.

Reference
Wikipedia

パクタ・スント・セルヴァンダ

pacta sunt servanda(パクタ・スント・セルヴァンダ)は、「合意は拘束する」「合意は守られなければならない」などと日本語訳されるラテン語起源の成句である。主に国際法で用いられる。

国際法上、この「『合意は拘束する』の原則」に対する唯一の制限は、強行規範(en:jus cogens)であるとされる。


法典などでの用法
「条約法に関するウィーン条約(en:Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties)」の前文の一部を引用すると、

(英)Noting that the principles of free concent and of good faith and the pacta sunt servanda rule are universally recognized,...
(仏)Constatant que les principes du libre consentement et de la bonne foi et la règle pacta sunt servanda sont universellement reconnus,...
などのように用いられる。多くの日本語版条約集では、"pacta sunt servanda rule" や "règle pacta sunt servanda" の部分は、「『合意は守られなければならない』の原則」や「『合意は守られなければならない』との規則」などと訳されている。

Reference
Wikipedia